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Implement/Instrument Name:
Click to hear the pronunciation
Papa Hehi a me Käla`au (Treadleboard with hand sticks)

Published Research Sources: 
Papa Kuhikuhi (Kaläkaua's Coronation Program)
- In Kaläkaua's extensive Coronation program of over 200 presentations, käla`au were utilized four times under Kumu Hula Ehu Keohohina. The papa hehi was not found anywhere in the listing.

Unwritten Literature of Hawai`i (Emerson)
- Käla`au are described in Chapter XXI on musical instruments. Papa hehi are not mentioned at all. Chapter XV "The Hula Ka-laau" gives detail on the ancient hula type and notes variations in the Kaua`i Hula Käla`au.

Hawaiian Dictionary (Puku`i/Elbert)
- " Papa Hehi" is noted as a "footboard, used for dancing." "Papa" means "board" and "hehi" means "to step on." The term "käla`au" is described as "stick dancing."

Hula: Historical Perspectives (Barrere/Puku`i/Kelly)
- These two implements in combination are noted on page 15 in a quote of Captain Cook, and on page 73 as a "rare" dance. The papa hehi alone is noted on pages 74, 83, and 84. The käla`au is noted on pages 14, 27, 28, 29, 33, 62, 63, 74, and 79.

Hula Pahu volume 1 (Kaeppler)
- Pg.255 footnote 24 says "notched" käla`au were documented in 1816 by Choris who described a dance using a stick with "transverse notches over which the dancers passed pieces of wood." A rattle sound was produced. Papa hehi is not mentioned.

Hula Pahu volume 2 (Tatar)
- On pages 50-51, Bingham describes the käla`au as a "long hardwood rod" (1821). He also provided a musical notation of the rhythm. Page 52 describes a Hula Käla`au witnessed on Kaua`i in 1862 that was perhaps a mele ma`i (procreation chant).

Sacred Hula: The Historical Hula `Äla`apapa (Stillman)
- Pages 25-27 detail the käla`au as one of two implements associated with Hula `Äla`apapa. The other is the ipu. Page 20 lists the names of three chants where the käla`au is used. Papa hehi is not mentioned.

Nä Mele Hula volume 2 (Beamer)
- On page 3, Beamer offers a look at the käla`au ki`ipä (vamp) in her tradition. Page 73 offers a chant Beamer learned using four different implement combinations: papa hehi with käla`au, käla`au alone, pöhaku (stones), and `ülili (spinning gourd).

Additional Notes :
These two implements are made of wood. The käla`au resonate more when the dancer has a looser grip on the sticks ("open" position). Alternately, the sound is more subdued when the grip is tight ("closed" position). The basic hand grip position and the mawaena (interlude) for the käla`au may vary from one hula tradition to the next.

The two sticks in a käla`au pair can be different lengths, which can also change the sound. Longer sticks generate a "lower" sound than shorter sticks. Another factor to consider is the type of wood from which the käla`au is made. Kauila is a bright-sounding hardwood that readily resonates. Since kauila can be difficult to find, pine and guava are also used.

The papa hehi, or treadleboard, consists of a board and cross-piece, which can be attached or loose. The basic shape of the board is rectangular. The specific hardwood used for the papa hehi and the surface upon which it is played impact the sound created. Different combinations can be done with the papa hehi. The two basic beats are heel and toe.

The particular mawaena (interlude) and beat pattern used with the papa hehi and the manner in which it is used in combination with the käla`au may differ with hula tradition. Sometimes the papa hehi may be the primary instrument with the käla`au secondary, or vice versa.

See below for color photos of two koa papa hehi. The rounded one, made by Pono Beamer, Nona Beamer's father, has an unattached rounded cross-piece. The rectangular board has a squared-off cross-piece attached to the board with screws. Also pictured below are käla`au. The smaller set is of kauila and the unstained set of pine. The "open" and "closed" hand positions are shown.

Please see "Published Sources" section above for greater detail on where to find documented research on this Implement. Peter Buck's "Arts and Crafts of Hawai`i" Volume IX on "Musical Instruments" (Bishop Museum Press) contains two sections of interest. "Hula Sticks" discusses the making of käla`au and gives an overview of historical accounts of its use and construction. "Footboards, Or Treadles" describes the use of papa hehi combined with käla`au and gives dimensions of the implements in Bishop Museum's Collection. A photo is included.

Please also consult the "Kupuna" section at bottom to read and hear what our elders have to share.

Small set of kauila & pine set of uneven lengths
"Open" grip position
"Closed" grip position
"Heel" position on attached cross-piece papa hehi
"Toe" beat on unattached cross-piece papa hehi
Oval koa papa hehi with unattached cross-piece
Rectangular koa papa hehi with attached cross-piece

Related Hula Types
Hula Papa Hehi a me Käla`au (Treadleboard dance with hand sticks)
Hula Wahi Pana (Dance for legendary or historic places)

Related Chants
He Moku Ka`ula (The island Ka`ula)

Related Küpuna
Beamer, Nona Kapuailohiamanonokalani Desha
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